Monthly Archives: September 2010

Measles and pertusis

There are many similarities between measles and pertusis. Measles Caused by paramyxo virus(RNA ) Only source of infection is a case of measles No carriers Virus cannot survive outside the body Koplik’s spots. Rubella is less communicable than measles because …

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Vitamin A daily requirements and dose

Retinol ,Retinal and retinoic acid are the three forms. Retinal is present in the rods and cones in retina. Children between 6 months to 1yr given-1 lakh IU Vit A Children between 1 yr and 6yrs- 2 Lakh IU Vit …

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Null hypothesis and P value

Null hypothesis states that there is no significant diiference between the two values. P value indicates the probability of the Null hypothesis being true ie the difference is due to chance. By convention a null hypothesis is rejected if P<=.05 …

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Methods of measuring body fluid volumes

60% of TBW is water- 20% ECF and 40%ICF Out of 20% ECF- 15% is Interstitial fluid and 5% is plasma. Total blood volume is 8% including plasma +cells. Method’s to measure. Plasma volume Evans blue-T1824 Serum albumin labelled with …

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Classification of Hormones

Hormones are classified into 3 groups. Steroid Hormones. Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids Estrogens Progestins Androgens Aminoacid derivative Derived from aminoacid tyrosine. Catecholamines Thyroid hormones Peptide/Protein hormones Parathormone Calcitonin Insulin Glucagon Pituitary hormones

Malignant Hyperthermia.

Life threatening event triggered by administration of anaesthetics and NM blocking agents. Triggered by uncontrolled release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Association seen with mutation of gene Ry-R1 encoding for Skeletal muscle Ryanodine receptors Severe hyperthermia,Contracture and rigidity,Metabolic acidosis,Tachycardia are …

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Hypoxia types

Hypoxic Hypoxia Due to inadequate PO2 in blood. Anemic Hypoxia Due to quantitative or qualitative deficiency of Hb. Eg: Severe anemia, CO poisoning. Stagnant/circulatory hypoxia. Due to circulatory failure. PO2 is normal Histotoxic Hypoxia PO2 is normal. Due to failure …

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