Monthly Archives: October 2010

EEG waves

EEG has four types of waves alpha,beta,theta and delta. Consider a  family where mother has passed away leaving 3 children in the protection of father.The father will be the head of family(consider him as alpha), next comes the son who …

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Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

ACL and PCL are almost exactly opposite in their functions. Anterior cruciate Ligament Major stabilizer of knee Limits anterior translation of tibia on femur Limits hyper extension of knee Attached on tibia just behind anterior horn of medial meniscus Runs …

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Membranes and Ligaments of Larynx

Ligaments and membranes of Larynx are divided into extrinsic and intrinsic Membranes of Larynx Extrinsic-Thyrohyoid membrane Intrinsic-Quadrangular membrane,Cricothyroid membrane,conus elasticus Ligaments of larynx Extrinsic Median thyrohyoid ligament Lateral thyrohyoid ligament Hyoepiglottic ligament Cricotracheal ligament Intrinsic Anterior/median cricothyroid ligament Thyroepiglottic ligament. …

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Glucose transporters

Glucose enters cells by facilitated diffusion or by secondary active transport with Sodium(in intestine and kidneys) Glucose transporters(Glut 1-7) are responsible for facilitated diffusion of glucose across cell membranes. They differ from sodium dependant glucose transporters(SGLT1 and 2) Glucose Transporters …

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Anion Gap and acidosis

Anion Gap is of 2 types, plasma Anion gap and urinary anion gap Plasma Anion Gap Plasma Anion Gap refers to the amount of unmeasured anions present in the plasma. Calculated by:[ Na+]     –     [Cl-]+[HCO3-]  or [Na+] + [K+] – …

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Saturated and Unsaturated Oils

Coconut Oil Butter Palmoil(MUFA-44) Cottonseed oil Margarine Groundnut Oil Soyabean Oil Sunflower seed Oil Safflower Oil Corn Oil Saturated fats Very bad for health.Content of saturated fats decreases from top to bottom in the list. So Cocunut Oil(92%),butter and Palmoil …

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Drugs removed by forced alkaline diuresis

Forced alkaline diuresis is done with bicarbonate,urea,furesamide,mannitol Weak acids are removed by Forced alkaline diuresis and weak alkali removed by forced acid diuresis Alkaline diuresis Salicylates Long acting barbiturates Chlorpropamide Methotrexate Acid Diuresis Amphetamines Quinine