Monthly Archives: November 2010

Important points

Pancytopenia with increased MCV- megaloblastic anemia. Valveless veins are IVC,common iliac vein,Portal venous system,Cranial sinuses Opthalmic artery is a branch of cerebral part of ICA and meningeal artery is br of cavernous part of ICA. Gibbs Donnan equilibrium is between …

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Important points

Sclera is thickest at the posterior pole near the optic nerve Sclera is thinnest just behind the insertion of superior rectus. Internuclear opthalmoplegia(INO) is a disorder of conjugate lateral gaze characterized by impaired horizontal eye movement with weak adduction of …

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Cephalosporins

First generation Parenteral: Cephalothin,cefazolin Oral: Cephalexin,cefadroxil,cefaridine Acts on gram positive cocci Second generation Parenteral: Cefuroxime,cefoxitin Oral: Cefaclor,Cefuroxime Most active against gram negative organisms cefuroxime higher CSF concentration Third generation Parenteral: Cefotaxime,ceftizoxime,ceftriaxone,ceftazidime,cefoperazone Oral: Cefixime,Cefpodoxime,cefdinir Highly active against gram negative enterobacteriacea Ceftyazidime …

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Important parasites

Parasites causing malabsorption in adults Giardia Lamblia E.Histolytica H.Nana Strongyloides Cyclospora Malabsorption in children G.Lamblia Isospora belli Cryptosporidium Ancylostoma duodenaLE E.Histolytica Capillaria phillipinensis Man is the defenitive host in most parasitic infections except in: Echinococcus granulosus Plasmodium Taenia Solium(man is …

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Dimorphic fungi

Can grow either as yeast or as mould depending on env conditions and temperature Usually yeast at body temperature(37C) and as filamentous forms at room temperature(27C) Blastomycetes Paracoccidiomyces Blastomyces Sporothrix Candida albicans(not other candida) Histoplasma capsulatum Penicillin marneffi

ACE inhibitors

All ACE inhibitors except captopril and lisinopril are prodrugs Enalapril—->Enalaprilat Enalapril has a half life on 1.3 hours only but enalaprilat has a halflife of 11 hours Lisinopril is lysine analogue of enalapril with half life of 12 hours. All …

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Alkylating agents

Transfer alkyl groups to various cellular constituents causing cell death. Alkylating agens—->cyclization—->Immonium ion/cabonium ion—–>transfer alkyl group. Major site of alkylation is N7 position of guanine with DNA. There are five major categories of alkylating agents. Nitrogen mustards Cyclophosphamide Mechlorethamine Chlorambucil …

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