Monthly Archives: November 2010 - Page 2

Digitalis toxicity

Precipitated by: Hypokalemia Hypomagnesemia Renal insufficiency Advanced age Myxoedema Hypoxia Acute MI Hypercalcemia Thyrotoxicosis Quinidine and calcium channel blockers Furosemide,thiazide,amphotericin B cause hypokalemia Note that all the factors precipitating digitalis toxicity are hypo states except hypercalcemia and thyrotoxicosis. Digitalis toxicity …

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Important points

Superior pancreatico duodental Artery- branch of gastro duodenal Inferior pancreatico duodenal- br of superior mesenteric Superior and inferior tarsal muscles and mullers/orbital muscle have sympathetic supply, so theya re affected in Horners. Mastoid antrum,auditory ossicles and structures of internal ear …

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Gonadal hormones.

Inhibin Secreted by sertoli cells in males and granulosa cells in females. Inhibits FSH from ant pituitary Activin Secreted by sertoli cells in males and granulosa cells in females. Stimulates FSH secretion. Relaxin Secreted in females by corpus luteum and …

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Maintenance of Calcium balance

Parathormone,Vit D and Calcitonin act together to maintain calcium homeostasis. Parathormone(PTH) Secreted when serum calcium falls. Increase calcium levels by: Promoting bone resorption Increased calcium absorption from intestine(via vit D) Increased reabsorption of Calcium from renal tubules.(Phoshate reabsorption reduced) Overall …

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Visual pathway and LGB

Lateral geniculate body is relay station on visual pathway. Receives fibres from ipsilateral temporal hemiretina and contralateral nasal hemiretina. Grey matter of LGB is split into 6 lamina. Fibres from ipsilateral temporal hemiretina ends in- 2,3,5. Fibres from contralateral nasal …

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Water reabsorption in kidneys

65% water reabsorption takes place in PCT. Water reabsorption is coupled with sodium reabsorption. Bulk of water reabsorption is secondary to sodium reabsorption. Obligatory water reabsorption Independant of plasma osmolality/water balance. Occurs in PCT. Water reabsorbed isoosmotically and independant of …

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Abduction of shoulder joint

Movement takes place in :Glenohumeral Joint 0-15 degree – Supraspinatus(Suprascapular N) 15-90 degree -Deltoid(axillary N) 90-120 degree- Deltoid+Short external rotators Movement takes place in:Scapulothoracic joint 120-180 degree- Serratus anterior(N to SA),trapezius(spinal accessory N)