Anopheles Eggs- In flowing water,with lateral floats ,laid singly.
Culex eggs- Raft shaped,in groups
Aedes- Cigar shaped,in groups
Mansoni -Star shaped,beneath around water plants.
Anopheles larvae- Free living lie parallel to surface.
Adult anopheles sits at an angle to the surface.
All other larvae lie at an angle and require siphons for breathing.
GAA- Friederichs AtAxia
CAG- Spino Cerebellar Ataxia
CAG- Kennedy’s disease(tip:Cennedy’s disease)
CAG- Huntingtons disease(Chorea)
CTG- Myotonic dystrophy
CGG- Fragile X syndrome
All conditions causing hyponatremia are hypo osmolar except
Normal in SIADH,Adrenal insufficiency,Hypothyroidism
Increased in Secondary hyperaldosteronism,CHF,Nephrotic syndrome,Cirrhosis
Hypoaldosteronism,saltwasting nephropathy,recent diuretics
- Primary watergain followed by secondary Sodium gain
- Urine Osmolarity higher
- Uricosuria- Hypouricemia
Primary sodium gain exceeded by secondary water gain.
Type I RTA
DCT- H+ secretion Low
Urine pH cannot be reduced<5.5 even by NH4Cl
Type II RTA
PCT – HCO3 reabsorption Low
Fanconis syndrome-Swan neck PCT
Type III RTA
Carbonic Anhydrase defect
Type IV RTA