Monthly Archives: December 2010 - Page 2

Channelopathies

Sodium Channel Hyperkalemic Periodic paralysis Paramyotonia congenita Congenital Long QT syndrome Brugada syndrome Myoclonic epilepsy Pottassium Channel Jervell Lange Nielsen Syndrome Acquired neuromyotonia- Isaac’s syndrome Episodic Ataxia 1 Andersens syndrome Calcium Channel Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Malignant Hyperthermia ARDVC Familial Hemiplegic …

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Involuntary movements and their Loci

Chorea – Cuadate nucleus Tremor -Red nucleus,Substantia Nigra Dystonia- Putamen Athetosis- Putamen Hemiballsimus- Subthalamic nuclei Huntingtons disease- Poor prognosis,Striatal atrophy.

Transudative vs exudative pleural effusions

Transudate Pleural effusions Usually due to non infectious etiology. CHF Cirrhosis Pulmonary embolism Nephrotic syndrome Peritoneal dialysis Urinothorax SVC obstruction Myxoedema Transudative effusions Mostly due to infectious etiology Neoplasms Infections Pulmonary embolism Collagen vascular diseases Occupational exposure Uremia Meigs syndrome …

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Acid Base balance calculation

pH:7.4+-.03 pCO2:40+-5mmHg HCO3-:24+-4 3 STEPS 1.Find the primary defect Metabolic Acidosis- Decreased HCO3- Metabolic Alkalosis- Increased HCO3- Respiratory Acidosis- Increased PCO2 Respiratory Alkalosis-Increased PCO2 2.Find the Compensation Metabolic acidosis(Dec HCO3-)- For every 1meq fall in HCO3-,PCO2 falls by 1mmHg Metabolic …

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Obstructive Vs Restrictive Lung disease

Obstructive lung disease TLC – Increased RV-Increased VC- Decreased FEV1/FVC- Decreased Examples Bronchiolitis Asthma Chronic Bronchitis Bronchiectasis Emphysema Cystic fibrosis Restrictive Lung disease TLC – Decreased RV- Decreased VC- Decreased FEV1/FVC- Increased Examples Sarcoidosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Pneumoconiosis Diaphragmatic Weakness …

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Lung Volumes

Total Lung Capacity(TLC)– Volume of air in lungs after maximal inspiration Residual Volume(RV)-Volume of air in lungs after maximal expiration Vital capacity(VC)– TLC-RV Forced Expiratory volume1(FEV1)-Volume of air forcibly expired in first secons Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEFR),Maximal Mid Expiratory flow …

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Respiratory failure types

Type I Respiratory failure Arterial Hypoxia Due to oxygenation failure PO2- Low ,PCO2- Normal or Low PAO2-PaO2 gradient- Increased eg:ARDS,Pulmonary HTN,ILD,Pneumonia,Pulmonary Edema. Type II respiratory failure Arterial Hypercapnia Due to Ventilatory failure PO2-Low, PCO2-High PAO2-PaO2 gradient-Unchanged Eg:Myasthenia,GBS,MS,ALS,IC bleed,Polio,Narcotic overdose Type …

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