Imaging of the chest is not only valuable in respiratory disorders, but it also gives valuable insights into specific disease conditions of heart. Given below are specific appearances that heart diseases make on an X ray film.
- Coeur en Sabot /Boot shaped heart – Tetralogy of Fallot
- Pear/Money bag/purse – Pericardial Effusion
- Box shaped heart – Ebstein’s anomaly
- Egg on side – TGA
- Snowman/figure of 8 – TAPVC
- Scimtar sign – TAPVC.
- Wide Vascular Pedicle – Corrected TOGV
- Sitting Duck shaped Heart- Persistant Truncus Arteriosus
- Flask shaped Heart/Leather bottle with Pulm. Oligemia- Pericardial Effusion
- Snowman/Figure of 8/ Cottage leaf of Bread heart- TAPVC
- Shaggy Heart – Pertusis
- Figure of 3 (CXR)/Reversed E sign(Ba swallow) – Coarctation of Aorta
- Hilar Dance sign(Fluoroscopy) – ASD
- Egg in cup – Constrictive pericarditis.
Find more characteristic findings in masterofmedicine among revision topics
Festinant gait – Parkinsonism
Reeling/ Ataxic gait – Cerebellar vermis involvement.
Stamping/Tabetic gait – Sensory ataxia.
Steppage/ Equine gait – Foot drop.
Waddling gait/ Trendelenberg gait – Gluteal muscle weakness.
Toppling gait – Vestibular neuronitis, Brainstem strokes.
Apraxic gait, paratonia(Gegenhalten), Bruns ataxia – Frontal lobe involvement.
Circumductive gait – Hemiplegia.
Astasia- Abasia - Hysterical.
Clinical features of Infective endocarditis is one of the favorite questions of examiners. Given below is the clinical features of IE and short explanations.
- Oslers nodes- tender nodules in pulp of fingers and sole.
- Janeway lesions – Non tender erythematous macules in palms and sole.
- Mycotic aneurisms- focal dilatations in arteries due to weakening by infection.
- Micro abscesses, hemorrhagic stroke.
- Roth’s spots, Glomerulonephritis.
- Perivalvular abscesses, MC around aortic valve.
- MC cause of death: Heart Failure due to valvular insufficiency.
Perthes disease – Femoral head
Panners disease – Capitulum
Keinbock disease – Lunate
Osgood Shattler disease -Tibial tubercle
Severs disease – Calcaneal tuberosity
Kohlers disease – Navicular
Freiberg’s disease – Metatarsal head
Scheurmann’s disease - Ring epiphysis of vertebrae
Calves disease – Central bony nucleus of vertebral body
Sinding Larsen Johansson disease – Lower pole of patella
Iselin’s disease – Traction epiphysis 5th metatarsal base