Monthly Archives: May 2011

Anti arrythmic drugs classification

Anti arrhythmic drugs are classified into four main classes. Class I – Sodium channel blockers(act on Phase 0) Class II – Beta blockers(act on phase 4) Class III– Potassium channel blockers(act on phase 3) Class IV – Calcium channel blockers(act …

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Heart murmurs and their physiologic responses to stress

Heart murmurs vary in quality and duration with specific physiological influences.Knowing these changes can help us differentiate between specific murmurs. Respiration Inspiration Right sided heart murmurs become loud with inspiration Systolic sounds – TR/PS Diastolic sounds – TS/PR Right sided …

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Adenoid cystic carcinoma

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is also called cylindroma . Constitute 10% of all salivary neoplasm 65% of minor salivary gland tumours are malignant, of them 40% are adenoid cystic carcinomas. Most common malignant tumour of minor salivary glands Seen equally in …

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Brilliantly transilluminant swellings

Vaginal hydrocele Epididymal cyst Cystic hygroma Ranula Meningocele

Drug induced lupus, drugs causing it.

Features of drug induced lupus are: ANA positive,Anti Histone antibody positive. Caucasians are more affected. Less female predilection compared to SLE. Rarely involves kidney or brain. Rarely associated with anti ds DNA positivity. ANA will be positive even before the …

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Tetrad of congenital Toxoplasmosis

Congenital toxoplasmosis is characterized by the classical tetrad described below Hydrocephalus/Microcephaly Chorioretinitis Convulsions/seizures Cerebral calcification

Bacterial diarrhea: Invasive vs Non Invasive diarrhea.

Bacterial diarrhea’s can be classified into invasive and non invasive, this classification has an important role in determining treatment modalities. Non Invasive Diarrhea Caused by release of toxins from bacteria resulting in disruption of secretory process. Characterized by watery diarrhea. …

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