June, 2011 | Master Of Medicine

Monthly Archives: June 2011

Causes of Micovesicular and macrovesicular fatty liver

Microvesicular hepatic steatosis

  • Reyes syndrome
  • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy
  • Jamaican vomiting sickness
  • Phosphorous,petrochemicals
  • Drugs
  1. Sodium valproate
  2. Tetracycline
  3. Nucleoside analogues

Macrovesicular hepatic steatosis

  • Alcohol
  • Insulin resistance
  • Non alcoholic steato hepatitis(NASH)
  • Total parenteral nutrition
  • Intestinal bypass surgeries
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Starvation
  • Drugs
  1. Aspirin
  2. Methotrexate
  3. Vitamin A
  4. Steroids
  5. Amiodarone
  6. Calcium channel blockers


The WHO treatment regimen for leprosy


Image via Wikipedia

Leprosy is a highly infectious disease with low pathogenicity.

It is made non infectious by treatment with Rifampicin for 3 weeks and Dapsone for 3 months.

WHO recommendations for treatment of leprosy.

Multibacillary leprosy

12 months treatment to be completed within 18 months

  1. Rifampicin 600mg once monthly under supervision
  2. Clofazimine 300mg once monthly under supervision
  3. Clofazimine 50 mg daily self administered
  4. Dapsone 100mg daily self administered.

Paucibacillary leprosy

6 months treatment to be completed within 9 months

  1. Rifampicin 600mg once monthly supervised
  2. Dapsone 100mg daily self administered

Paucibacillary leprosy with single lesion

  1. Ofloxacin 400mg single dose
  2. Rifampicin 600 mg single dose
  3. Minocycline 100mg single dose

Interesting find: World leprosy day January 31st or nearest Sunday .This day was chosen in memory of the death of Gandhi, the leader of India who understood the importance of leprosy.(Source:wikipedia)

Don’t forget to go through Lepra reaction and treatment.

Wilms tumour and associated syndromes

Wilms tumour

  1. Also known as nephroblastoma.
  2. Wilms tumour is the most common primary renal tumour in children.
  3. Usually wilms tumour is a solitary,well circumscribed lesion,but 10% is bilateral or multicentric.
  4. Triphasic combination of epithelial,stromal and blastemal elements.
  5. 5% show anaplasia associated with underlying P53 mutation and unresponsive to chemotherapy.
  6. Nephrogenic cell rests- High correlation with Wilms tumour in contralateral kidney.

Syndromes associated with wilms tumour

WAGR syndrome

  1. Wilms tumour
  2. Aniridia
  3. Genital abnormalities
  4. Mental retardation

Denys Drash Syndrome

  1. Gonadal dysgenesis(Male pseudohermaphroditism)
  2. Renal abnormalities

Beckwith Weidman syndrome

  1. Organomegaly
  2. Hemihypertrophy
  3. Renal medullary cysts
  4. Hepatoblastoma
  5. Adrenal cortical tumour
  6. Rhabdomyosarcoma
  7. Pancreatic tumour

IPC sections relevant for a medical practitioner.

Indian Penal Code and related questions are frequently repeated in MCQ exams.So having good knowledge is important during practice and for entrance exams too.

IPC 82 -Child <7yrs incapable of committing a crime

IPC 83 – Children 7-12yrs can be punished for crime

IPC 84 - Criminal responsibility of the insane

IPC 191 – Defenition of perjury

IPC 193 – Punishment for Perjury

IPC 299 - Defines culpable homicide

IPC 300 -Defines murder

IPC 302 -Punishment for murder

IPC 304 -Punishment for culpable homicide

IPC 304A -Criminal negligence

IPC 304B-Dowry death

IPC 319 -Hurt

IPC 320 – Grievous hurt

IPC 325 - Punishment for grievous hurt

IPC 374 – Defenition of rape

IPC 376 -Punishment for rape

IPC 377 – Unnatural sexual offences

Hormone secreting cells of anterior pituitary

Acidophil cells

  1. Somatotroph- Growth Hormone
  2. Lactotroph – Prolactin

Basophil cells

  1. Corticotroph -  ACTH
  2. Thyrotroph – TSH
  3. Gonadotroph - FSH

Biochemical tests

  1. Fouchets test – bile pigments(urobilinogen and porphobilinogen)
  2. Hay’s Sulphur test- Bile salts
  3. Benedicts test – Blood sugar
  4. Rothera’s test – Ketone bodies
  5. Biuret test – Protein

Biuret reagent- CuSO4,Sodium potassium tartarate,Potassium iodide in sodium hydroxide

Test for glucose

  1. Benedict’s test
  2. Glucose oxidase test(Beta D glucose estimation-quantitative)
  3. Dextrostix test
  4. Follin and wu method

Intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal organs.

List of images in Gray's Anatomy: XII. Surface...

Image via Wikipedia

Intraperitoneal Organs

During development some organs grow inside the peritoneal cavity, these are called intra peritoneal organs

Retroperitoneal Organs

Some organs grow outside the peritoneal cavity, these are retroperitoneal organs


Secondary retroperitoneal organs

Some organs grow in the intraperitoneal space during fetal period but become extraperitoneal during later development.These organs are called Secondary retroperitoneal organs.

eg:Duodenum,pancreas,Ascending Colon,Descending colon.

Intraperitoneal organs

  1. Esophagus
  2. Stomach
  3. Jejunum
  4. Ileum
  5. Caecum
  6. Appendix
  7. Transverse colon
  8. Sigmoid colon

Extraperitoneal organs

  1. Duodenum
  2. Pancreas
  3. Ascending colon
  4. Descending colon
  5. Transverse colon

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