August, 2011 | Master Of Medicine

Monthly Archives: August 2011

GIT hormones,their actions and sites of action.


  1. Secreted from I cells
  2. Acts on GB and pancreas
  3. Increase enzyme secretion
  4. Increase contraction

Gastro Intestinal Peptide(GIP)

  1. Secreted from K cells
  2. Acts on Pancreas
  3. Increase insulin
  4. Decrease fluid absorption


  1. Secreted from stomach
  2. Increase food intake
  3. Increase GH secretion


  1. Secreted from G cells
  2. Acts on parietal cells
  3. Increase H+ secretion

Gastrin Releasing Peptide(GRP)

  1. Secreted from vagal nerve end
  2. Acts on G cells
  3. Increase gastrin secretion


  1. Secreted from ileum and colon
  2. Acts on small and large intestines
  3. Increased fluid absorption


  1. Secreted from Mo cells
  2. Acts on upper GI
  3. Smooth muscle contraction


  1. Present all over intestine
  2. Acts  on intestinal smooth muscles
  3. Increase histamine release

Peptide YY

  1. Secreted from ileum and colon
  2. Acts on stomach and pancreas
  3. Decrease acid secretion and increase enzyme fluid


  1. From S cells
  2. Acts on pancreas and stomach
  3. Increase bicarbonate and fluid
  4. Decrease acid secretion from stomach


  1. Secreted from D cells
  2. Acts on stomach,pancreas,intestne,liver
  3. Decrease secretion and increase fluid

Substance -P

  1. From enteric neurons
  2. Acts on enteric neurons


  1. From ENS neurons
  2. Acts on SI and pancreas
  3. Increase secretion
  4. Decrease smooth muscle relaxation.

List of must read books for AIPGME.

Most of time I get some questions regarding books needed for PG medical entrance preparation.Though I have listed a few of the most needed books, readers keep on asking for a comprehensive list. The most important point is to study the most essential books and trying to retain most of the topics learned.Revision is more important than extensive reading.

Must read books for AIPGME

1.Ashish Gupta latest 2 Volumes(AIIMS previous questions)

2.Mudit Khanna 2 volumes(AIPGME previous questions)

Cover these 4 books at first before thinking of reading anything else.

Semi essential books

1.ACROSS 2 volumes

2.Sparsh Gupta Pharmacology

3.Sparsh Gupta Pathology

4.Ashish Gupta Surgery

5.Ashish Gupta Medicine

6.Manoj Chaudhary PGI question papers.

Some good books worth reading

1.ENT by Dr.Shibu George

2.Platinum notes published by Jaypee books

3.Sure Success or ROAMS

4.Anatomy by Dr.Arivuselvam

5.Rapid review AIPGME 2011 by Rahul K.R

As new pattern is being planned for NEETPG2012, preparing for assertion reasoning type questions might prove beneficial.If you have good books to add to this list, please share with us in the comments section.

Medical treatment of Gall stones.

Opened gall bladder containing numerous gallstones

Image via Wikipedia

Gallbladder stones can be treated both by medical and surgical methods.Medical treatment of gallstones is indicated when the stones are small and radiolucent and surgical treatment is usually employed when gallstones are large and radio opaque.

Medical treatment of Gall stones-Prerequisites

  1. Radiolucent stones
  2. Small stones(size<10mm)
  3. Functioning gallbladder
  4. Non-Acute symptoms

Drugs used:

  1. Ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA)
  2. Chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA)

Radiolucent stones are made of cholesterol, but radio opaques stones contain calcium so they cannot be dissolved by using UDCA or CDCA,hence surgery may be needed.

Asymptomatic gallstones are usually left alone and followed up.

Indication for Cholecystectomy in asymptomatic gallstones

  1. Stone>3cm in diameter
  2. Multiple small stones
  3. Stone and polyp coexisting
  4. Calcified gallbladder(Porcelain GB)
  5. Congenital anomaly of GB
  6. Immunocompromised patients
  7. Gallstones in diabetics

Diaphragm development

Septum transversum

Image via Wikipedia

Diaphragm develops from the following components:

  1. Septum transversum
  2. Pleuroperitoneal membranes
  3. Ventral and dorsal mesenteries of esophagus
  4. Mesoderm of body wall
  5. Cervical myotomes

Septum transversum forms the central tendon of the diaphragm



CDC categories of potential agents of Bioterrorism.

Logo of the Centers for Disease Control and Pr...

Image via Wikipedia

CDC has divided potential bioterrorism agents into 3 categories Category A, Cat B and Cat C.

Category A

Easily disseminated and result in high mortality, hence given the highest priority.

  1. Anthrax
  2. Botulism
  3. Plague
  4. Small Pox
  5. Tularemia
  6. Viral hemorrhagic fevers
  • Lassa fever
  • Crimean congo fever
  • Ebola
  • Marburg

Plague is one of the most potent members of this group, because pnemonic plague has a mortality of 100% if untreated and it has person to person transmission

Category B

Moderately easy to disseminate and result in moderate mortality and morbidity, hence given second highest priority.

  1. Brucellosis
  2. Glanders
  3. Meliodosis
  4. Q fever
  5. Typhus fever
  6. Viral encephalitis
  7. Cholera

Category C

Emerging pathogens against which the general population lacks immunity

  1. Nipah virus
  2. Hanta virus
  3. SARS virus
  4. Influenza virus


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