Monthly Archives: April 2015

Achalasia Cardia

Failure of LES to relax. LES remains in a constant state of tone with periods of relaxation. Etiology Idiopathic Infectious Neurogenic degeneration Stress Trauma Chagas disease Pathophysiology Young women, middle aged men and women are affected. Primary pathology is destruction …

Read more »

HIRSCHSPRUNGS Disease

Definition Congenital develoental disorder characterised by the absence of ganglion cells in myenteric(Auerbach’s)plexus and aubmucosal Meissner’s plexus. Epidemiology Occurs in 1 in 5000 childbirths, more common in males and m:f ratio is 4:1. Etiology Family history of HIrschsprungs, 3-5 percent …

Read more »

Undescended testis

Definition Incomplete descent of testis occurs when testis is arrested in some part of its normal path to scrotum. Development and descent of testis Testis develops from genital ridge in 7th week of intrauterine life, in the retroperitoneum below the …

Read more »