Barium study findings in various gastrointestinal diseases.

Barium swallow findings

  1. Bird beak appearanceAchalasia cardia
  2. Rat tail appearance – Achalasia cardia
  3. Corkscrew esophagus – Diffuse esophageal spasm
  4. Curling esophagus – Diffuse esophageal spasm
  5. Nut crackers esophagus – Diffuse esophageal spasm

Barium meal findings

  1. String sign – Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
  2. Thumb print appearance – Ischaemic colitis
  3. Inverted 3 sign of Frosberg – Ca head of pancreas
  4. Widening of C loop of duodenum/antral pad sign– Ca head of pancreas

Barium enema findings

Ileocaecal TB and incompetant ileocaecal valve

  1. Pulled up caecum
  2. Obtuse ileocaecal angle
  3. Filling defect

Carcinoma Colon

  1. Apple core deformity
  2. Irregular filling defect

Ulcerative Colitis

  1. Lead pipe appearance
  2. Loss of haustrations

Crohn’s disease

  1. String sign of Kantor
  2. Raspberry thorn ulcers

Colonic polyps

  1. Smooth irregular filling defects

Hirschsprung disease

  1. Dilated proximal zone with narrow distal zone of coning

Diverticulosis of colon

  1. Saw tooth appearance
  2. Champagne glass sign

Ischemic colitis

  1. Thumb print appearance


  1. Coiled spring appearance
  2. Claw sign


  1. Bird beak sign
  2. Ace of spades
  1. Good

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