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Category Archives: Community Medicine

Body Mass Index latest values to determine obesity.

Body mass Index

Underweight – <18.5

Normal – 18.5-24.9

Overweight >25

1.Preobese 25-29.9

2.Obese 1 -30 -34.9

3.Obese 2 – 35 -39.9

4.Morbid obesity >40

WHO has set some recommendations for Asians(to reduce the Obesity limit due to higher cardiovascular risk among Asians) but BMI still remains same as above.

CDC categories of potential agents of Bioterrorism.

Logo of the Centers for Disease Control and Pr...

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CDC has divided potential bioterrorism agents into 3 categories Category A, Cat B and Cat C.

Category A

Easily disseminated and result in high mortality, hence given the highest priority.

  1. Anthrax
  2. Botulism
  3. Plague
  4. Small Pox
  5. Tularemia
  6. Viral hemorrhagic fevers
  • Lassa fever
  • Crimean congo fever
  • Ebola
  • Marburg

Plague is one of the most potent members of this group, because pnemonic plague has a mortality of 100% if untreated and it has person to person transmission

Category B

Moderately easy to disseminate and result in moderate mortality and morbidity, hence given second highest priority.

  1. Brucellosis
  2. Glanders
  3. Meliodosis
  4. Q fever
  5. Typhus fever
  6. Viral encephalitis
  7. Cholera

Category C

Emerging pathogens against which the general population lacks immunity

  1. Nipah virus
  2. Hanta virus
  3. SARS virus
  4. Influenza virus

 

The WHO treatment regimen for leprosy

Leprosy.

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Leprosy is a highly infectious disease with low pathogenicity.

It is made non infectious by treatment with Rifampicin for 3 weeks and Dapsone for 3 months.

WHO recommendations for treatment of leprosy.

Multibacillary leprosy

12 months treatment to be completed within 18 months

  1. Rifampicin 600mg once monthly under supervision
  2. Clofazimine 300mg once monthly under supervision
  3. Clofazimine 50 mg daily self administered
  4. Dapsone 100mg daily self administered.

Paucibacillary leprosy

6 months treatment to be completed within 9 months

  1. Rifampicin 600mg once monthly supervised
  2. Dapsone 100mg daily self administered

Paucibacillary leprosy with single lesion

  1. Ofloxacin 400mg single dose
  2. Rifampicin 600 mg single dose
  3. Minocycline 100mg single dose

Interesting find: World leprosy day January 31st or nearest Sunday .This day was chosen in memory of the death of Gandhi, the leader of India who understood the importance of leprosy.(Source:wikipedia)

Don’t forget to go through Lepra reaction and treatment.

Vision 2020:Right to sight

Vision 2020:Right to sight, is an internatioonal initiative started by WHO in 1999 along with Task force of International NGO’s. It aims at dealing with 5 major conditions which cause blindness.

  1. Cataract
  2. Childhood blindness
  3. Trachoma
  4. Refractive errors and low vision
  5. Onchocerciasis(River bindness)

The Indian govt has adopted Vision 2020:Right to sight under National Programme for control of blindness in 2001. Diseases included in India are:

  1. Cataract
  2. Childhood blindness
  3. Trachoma
  4. Refractive errors and low vision
  5. Corneal blindness
  6. Diabetic retinopathy
  7. Glaucoma

River blindness was excluded from the list and three diseases added to the list.

Mosquitoes and their eggs

Anopheles Eggs- In flowing water,with lateral floats ,laid singly.

Culex eggs- Raft shaped,in groups

Aedes- Cigar shaped,in groups

Mansoni -Star shaped,beneath around water plants.

Anopheles larvae- Free living lie parallel to surface.

Adult anopheles sits at an angle to the surface.

All other larvae lie at an angle and require siphons for breathing.

Saturated and Unsaturated Oils

  1. Coconut Oil
  2. Butter
  3. Palmoil(MUFA-44)
  4. Cottonseed oil
  5. Margarine
  6. Groundnut Oil
  7. Soyabean Oil
  8. Sunflower seed Oil
  9. Safflower Oil
  10. Corn Oil

Saturated fats

Very bad for health.Content of saturated fats decreases from top to bottom in the list.

So Cocunut Oil(92%),butter and Palmoil have the maximum saturated fats and are least healthy.

whereas Soyabean Oil,Sunflower Oil,Safflower Oil and corn oil have least saturated fattyacids

MUFA and PUFA

Both are good for health.

Maximum MUFA in Groundnut Oil(50%)

PUFA

  1. Soyabean Oil(62)
  2. Sunflower Oil(65)
  3. Safflower(65)
  4. CornOil(60)

Confusing terms In community medicine

Control,Elimination,Eradication

Control-Equilibrium between agent,host and environment.Different for different countries

Elimination- Interruption of all transmission from a geographical area.

eg:Measles and Polio eliminated from many western countries.

Eradication- Extermination of the infectious agent from the face of earth

eg:Small pox.

Tip:Getting eliminated from a competition means being thrown out of the competition.It doesn’t mean that he/she cannot participate in any other competition!

Impairment,disability,Handicap

Impairment- Loss of anatomical,physiological or psychological structure or function

eg:Damage to eye

Disability- Inability to do something which others is capable of due to the impairment he/ she has

eg: Cannot see

Handicap- Social problem due to disability

eg: Jobloss due to the disability.

Generation time,serial interval

Generation time- the time interval between reciept of infection and maximum infectivity of the host.

Serial interval- Time interval between primary and secondary cases.

Tip: Generation time is the time needed to generate enough bacteria/virus to produce maximum infection,whereas serial interval is just like a TV serial, it goes on for ages like primary,secondary cases.

Index case- First detected case

Descriptive and analytical study

Descriptive study- For the formulation of a hypothesis

Analytical study- To confirm a hypothesis

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