High yield points | Master Of Medicine

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It is time,to start working again

After taking rest for about 3 weeks, I am planning to start my studies again.So I have decided to enumerate some steps and find out where we went wrong last year.

1. One goal, one target.

Concentrate on just one goal: passing the PG entrance exam. If you concentrate on making money, attending marriage functions, reading newspapers etc. your effort is being dissipated.

2.Study for each exam,in its own pattern.

AIIMS entrance exam is different from All India which is very different from Kerala and JIPMER. So finding previous question papers of each of these and learning them is the most important step of all.

3.Maintain focus till the exam is over

4. Stick to timetable and cover as many MCQ books as possible.

5.Revision is a must

Revising everything you learn starting 10 days before the exam is a key step.

Interesting doubles

It is always easier to learn by comparing two opposites. We can always find contrasting pairs which help us to memorize topics at ease.

I have compiled a list of interesting doubles just for the sake of memorizing complex topics, the list is being updated continuously.

1. Aortic dissection and aortic aneurism

Investigation of choice for Aortic dissection- MRI

IOC for Aortic aneurism- Angiography.

2.Parkinsonism and  Schizophrenia

Parkinsonism is due to dopamine deficiency

Schizophrenia is due to dopamine overactivity

Alzheimers is due to Alcetylcholine.

3.Hallucinations in Schizophrenia and Alcoholism

Schizophrenia -Auditory hallucination

Alcoholism-Visual hallucination

4. IL1 and IL2

IL1 – Secreted by macrophages

IL2- Secreted by T helper cells(CD4)

Function of IL1 is to stimulate IL2 production.

5.MAC and Km

MAC- Measure of potency of drug.Higher the MAC less potent the drug.

Km-Higher the Km less potent the drug is.

6.Potency and efficacy

Potency- Dose required for maximum effect

Efficacy-Maximum effect produced by a drug.

Efficacy more important than potency in clinical setting.

7.Labatelol and Lapatinib

Labetalol- Combined alpha and beta blocker

Lapatinib- Her1 and HER2 antagonist.

8.Physostigmine and Neostigmine

Physostigmine- Lipid soluble so crosses Blood Brain Barrier

Neostigmine- Lipid insoluble cannot cross BBB

9.Microglia and Astrocytes

Microglia- CNS macrophages

Astrocytes- Form Blood Brain Barrier

10.Osteocalcin and Osteopontin

Osteocalcin- Osteoblasti activity

Osteopontin- Epithelial tumour marker of ovary.

11.Night Terror and Nightmare

Night Terror- Not Recall NREM Sleep

Nightmare- Recall REM Sleep

12.Hypo and Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

Hypokalemic Periodic paralysis- Calcium channel defect

Hyperkalemic Periodic paralysis- Sodium Channel defect

13.Muscular dystrophy and Myotonic dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy -X linked recessive

Myotonic dystrophy- Autosomal dominant

Important points

  • Sclera is thickest at the posterior pole near the optic nerve
  • Sclera is thinnest just behind the insertion of superior rectus.
  • Internuclear opthalmoplegia(INO) is a disorder of conjugate lateral gaze characterized by impaired horizontal eye movement with weak adduction of ipsilateral eye and abduction nystagmus of contralateral eye.

Absolute indication for termination of pregnancy are-

  1. Primary pulmonary hypertension
  2. Eisenmenger syndrome
  3. Pulmonary veno occlusive disease
  • Trisomy 18 is associated with greatest chance of abortion among trisomies(74%)
  • Fishy odour and clue cells give clue of Bacterial vaginosis,doc is metronidazole.
  • Mayer Rokitansky kuster hauser syndrome consists of vaginal aplasia with other mullerian abnormalities.
  • Ovaries are unaffected in Mayer Rokitansky syndrome because they are developed from primitive ectoderm(genital ridge)
  • Chorionic villous biopsy can be carried out transcervically from 10-12 weeks and transabdominally from 10 weeks to term
  • Two important causes of hip pain in children are transient synovitis and septic arthritis, septic arthritis is due to infection whereas transient synovitis is due to immune reaction triggered by bacterial antigens.
  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Double bubble sign is characteristic of duodenal atresia, first bubble is due to dilated stomach and second bubble due to duodenum.
  • Double bubble sign can also be due to duodenal stenosis,duodenal webs,annular pancreas,malrotation of gut due to midline volvulus/ladd bands,preduodenal position of portal vein.
  • Peyronies disease is also called penile fibromatosis.

HS purpura is characterized by tetrad of

  1. purpura
  2. arthritis
  3. Glomerulonephritis
  4. Abdominal pain
  • Zona glomerulosa -minerallocorticoid
  • Zona fasciculata- Glucocorticoid
  • Zona reticularis-Sex corticoid.
  • Carolis disease is type V cholidochal cyst.
  • Clomiphene citrate is a weak estrogen agonist so it acts as estrogen antagonist in the presence of estrogen.
  • High frequency hearing loss is due to ototoxic medications,high frequency audiometry is used to isentify hearing loss due to ototoxic drugs.

Rhomberg test tests:

  1. Joint position sense(proprioception)
  2. Vision
  3. Vestibular apparatus

If any two of the above is working rhombergs test is negative.

Confusing points

Pernicious anemia- Fundus of stomach affected, while Gcell hyperplasia in antrum

Blood group A- Increased risk of stomach Ca

Transplantation of Human organs act-1994

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