Category Archives: Nephrology

Nephrotic syndrome clinical features and complications-mnemonic

Nephrotic syndrome is one of the most common conditions which is encountered in the paedicatric age group.Memorizing the clinical features and complications of nephrotic syndrome is essential while appearing for all the MCQ exams.This mnemonic is for memorizing the clinical …

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Causes of renal papillary necrosis mnemonic

What is renal papillary necrosis? It is a type of coagulative necrosis, which affects the renal medullary pyramids and papillae. Conditions causing renal papillary necrosis can be remembered by this simple mnemonic. Mnemonic for Renal papillary Necrosis POSTCARDS Pyelonephritis Obstruction …

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Why does nocturia occur in heartfailure?

While taking case history in a cardiac failure patient, one of the most important points to be enquired is whether there is a history of nocturia in the patient. What is nocturia? The tendency of the patient to urinate excessively …

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Prerequisite for drugs to be eliminated by dialysis

Drugs eliminated by dialysis have the following features Low molecular mass<500da High water solubility Low plasma protein binding Small volume of distribution Long half life High dialysis clearance relative to total body clearance Drugs which can be cleared by dialysis …

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Hyponatremia

Osmolality All conditions causing hyponatremia are hypo osmolar except Pseudohyponatremia hyperlipidemia hypoproteinemia Hyperglycemia ECF volume Normal in SIADH,Adrenal insufficiency,Hypothyroidism Increased in Secondary hyperaldosteronism,CHF,Nephrotic syndrome,Cirrhosis Urine Sodium>20mmol/L Hypoaldosteronism,saltwasting nephropathy,recent diuretics SIADH Primary watergain followed by secondary Sodium gain Urine Osmolarity higher …

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Renal Tubular acidosis

Type I RTA DCT- H+ secretion Low Urine pH cannot be reduced<5.5 even by NH4Cl Type II RTA PCT –  HCO3 reabsorption Low Fanconis syndrome-Swan neck PCT Type III RTA Autosomal recessive Carbonic Anhydrase defect Type IV RTA DCT- H+/K+ …

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