Category Archives: Neurology

Basal ganglia and their classification

The basal ganglia is an important part of the brain which program impulses from cerebral cortex and initiates motor activities through cerebellum and corticospinal tracts. Parkinsonism is a disorder in which there is decrease in the dopaminergic neurons in the …

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Lateral medullary syndrome

Also known as Wallenberg syndrome. Vertebral artery is the most commonly involved artery (V4 segment) or Posterior Inferior cerebellar artery(PICA) Right sided lateral medullary lesion Loss of pain and temperature in right side of face and left side of body. …

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Midbrain and pontine syndromes

Midbrain Syndromes Weber’s syndrome Ipsilateral 3rd Nerve palsy with contralateral hemiplegia Nothnagels Syndrome Due to superior cerebellar peduncle injury. Ipsilateral 3rd nerve palsy with Contralateral cerebellar ataxia Benedicts Syndrome Due to involvement of red nucleus Ipsilateral 3rd nerve palsy with …

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Gait disturbances with their causes.

Festinant gait – Parkinsonism Reeling/ Ataxic gait – Cerebellar vermis involvement. Stamping/Tabetic gait – Sensory ataxia. Steppage/ Equine gait – Foot drop. Waddling gait/ Trendelenberg gait – Gluteal muscle weakness. Toppling gait – Vestibular neuronitis, Brainstem strokes. Apraxic gait, paratonia(Gegenhalten), …

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Guillain Barre syndrome and variants

Guillain Barre Syndrome Ascending Areflexic paralysis Minimal or no sensory loss Preceded by infection with Campylobacter Jejuni(MC),CMV,Mycoplasma Autoantibodies against gangliosides usually anti GM1. IVIg is the treatment of choice,plasmapheresis also done. GBS variants AIDP Seen in adults Demyelinating disorder Anti …

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Causes of Reversible Dementia

Wernickes Encephalopathy Hypothyroidism Cushings syndrome Organ failure Neurosyphilis Whipples disease Chronic Subdural hematoma Normal pressure hydrocephalus Drugs,medications,Narcotics Depression(pseudo dementia) Schizophrenia Vasculitis Acute intermittent porphyria Recurrent non convulsive seizures

Channelopathies

Sodium Channel Hyperkalemic Periodic paralysis Paramyotonia congenita Congenital Long QT syndrome Brugada syndrome Myoclonic epilepsy Pottassium Channel Jervell Lange Nielsen Syndrome Acquired neuromyotonia- Isaac’s syndrome Episodic Ataxia 1 Andersens syndrome Calcium Channel Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Malignant Hyperthermia ARDVC Familial Hemiplegic …

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