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Some general concepts in medicine and ways to learn

English: Planes of human anatomy.

English: Planes of human anatomy. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

If basic anatomy and physiology is not mastered well the rest of medical studies is bound to fail.So refreshing and relearning some basic concepts in medicine will be a great idea.

We are going to learn the human anatomy, physiology and diseases affecting different organs and structures in a step by step manner.

 How topics are going to be covered.

Human body can be covered from surface to deep and from top to bottom.From skin to bone and from head to foot.

The basic structure


2.Subcutaneous tissue



5.Blood vessels, nerves


Although this is the basic structure of human body, the different layers can vary in different parts of human body. For example, the skin of scalp and other areas are different and likewise the structure and formation of bones can also vary. Mastering the anatomy of the human body is not an easy task, it is difficult but can be made easy by combining the anatomy with physiology and surgical anatomy. So we are starting a journey which is going to extend from head to foot.



Learning the basics of medicine.

English: Illustration of the Knowledge Triangle

Image via Wikipedia

Medicine, is an art which if practiced well not only makes you happy but also richer.To practice medicine what we need is a sound knowledge of the basics of life. About human life, bacteria, fungi, viruses and a lot of other parasites about nutrients, diseases, medicines the list is endless. This enormous amount of medical knowledge can be assimilated by a person only if he/she has the passion towards this profession. The passion to save lives, to make others smile.

During the period of the MBBS course, most of the students(including myself) forget to assimilate the knowledge, which is needed to heal. What we have learnt doesn’t help us at all. You may pass the exams, but you will never get the satisfaction of knowing how the disease was healed or how a medicine works.

Having a friend to whom you can turn for an advice is a great boon. People with such knowledge are priceless. If you think knowing is all, you are just learning. Knowing the basics and having an attitude to help others is is a rarity among students. So if you forgot to master the basics while at college, it is time you start from the beginning. Reading the question papers and hoping for justice from question setters is absurd. Which was what we expected from the question setters from AIIMS for the AIPGMEE 2012.

If you want to practice medicine, you need all the subjects Anatomy, physiology, Pharmacology and all others. No subject can be omitted or can be considered inferior. History of medicine is important in our journey to excellence. The people who lived before us achieved with very little resources and we with all those resources in our hand is finding it difficult to just memorize those facts!

So I have come to a conclusion that what I learnt wasn’t complete. So I have decided  to start learning again and to write about what I learn here.Some posts maybe about  doubts which have been lingering in my mind for a very long time. I am trying to find some answers here, and I have found a few good bloggers to listen to. Give your suggestions regarding the topics you want to be discussed in the comments section of this post. Happy learning!

Important points

  1. Superior pancreatico duodental Artery- branch of gastro duodenal
  2. Inferior pancreatico duodenal- br of superior mesenteric
  3. Superior and inferior tarsal muscles and mullers/orbital muscle have sympathetic supply, so theya re affected in Horners.
  4. Mastoid antrum,auditory ossicles and structures of internal ear are fully developed at birth.
  5. Progesterone causes impaired glucose tolerance.
  6. Estrogen improves response to insulin.
  7. Saliva contains large quantity of K+ and Bicarbonate, but K+ content is maximum in secretions from rectum.
  8. Maxillary antrum and orbit reaches adult size by 15 -16 years.
  9. Capacitation of sperms occur in uterus and fallopian tubes
  10. Acrosome reaction occurs after binding to zona pellucida induced by zona proteins.
  11. Muscle spindle detects muscle length and its rate of change
  12. Golgi tendon organ detects muscle tension and its rate of change
  13. Inverse stretch reflex/lengthening reaction mediated by Golgi tendon organ.
  14. Foveola is the centre of fovea in the retina, in the foveola there is one to one relationship between cones , bipolar cells and retinal ganglion cells.
  15. Rods have an absorption peak near 500nm.
  16. Difference between photoreceptors and other receptors is that photoreceptors get hyperpolarized instead of being depolarized.
  17. Photoreceptor cells are in depolarized state in the dark due to open Na+ channels, during hyperpolarization these channels close.

Important points

Barr body is inactive X chromosome seen in Interphase.

Major constituent of surfactant is Di palmatoyl phosphatidyl choline

Thyroid hormone enhance activity of type II pneumatocytes

Insulin ihibits the activity of type II pneumatocytes

Glucocorticoids enhance maturation of surfactant

Surfactant deficiency may occur in

  1. Occlusion of main bronchus
  2. Occlusion of pulmonary artery
  3. Long term inhalation of 100% O2
  4. Cigarette smokers

Transport of CO2 occurs mainly in form of bicarbonate(70%)>carbamino compounds>dissolved CO2.

Exposure to high CO2 leads to cerebral and cutaneous vasodialtion and vasoconstriction elsewhere.

Increased negative intrathoracic pressure increase length of ventricular muscles.

Nitric oxide acts by stimulating  guanyl cyclase raising cGMP and stimulating protein kinase G.

NO and CO are neuromodulators.

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