Category Archives: Opthalmology

Features of Pterygium and its difference from pinguecula.

Pterygium and Pinguecula are two names which are so similar that we often make mistakes when either is asked.So let us differentiate. Pterygium Wing shaped fold of conjunctiva encroaching upon the cornea from either side of interpalpebral fissure Common in …

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Vision 2020:Right to sight

Vision 2020:Right to sight, is an internatioonal initiative started by WHO in 1999 along with Task force of International NGO’s. It aims at dealing with 5 major conditions which cause blindness. Cataract Childhood blindness Trachoma Refractive errors and low vision …

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Visual pathway and LGB

Lateral geniculate body is relay station on visual pathway. Receives fibres from ipsilateral temporal hemiretina and contralateral nasal hemiretina. Grey matter of LGB is split into 6 lamina. Fibres from ipsilateral temporal hemiretina ends in- 2,3,5. Fibres from contralateral nasal …

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Layers of retina

Pigmented epithelium Layer of rods and cones External limiting membrane Outer nuclear layer Outer plexiform layer inner nuclear layer Inner plexiform layer Ganglion cell layer Nerve fibre layer Internal limiting membrane


Orthotropia Exotropia Esotropia When eye is uncrossed diplopia is crossed, seen in divergent squint. Concomitent squint primary deviation= secondary deviation No diplopia in concomitent squint. If secondary deviation>primary, paralytic squint Accomodative Esotropia-Hypermetropia,corrected by spectacles Infantile Esotropia-b/l weakness in MR,Treatment is …

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Stickler’s syndrome

Autosomal dominant Optically clear vitreous Associated with ectopia lentis Presenile cataract Glaucoma and vertical lattice degneration Falttened nasal bridge,telecanthus,micrognathia,glossoptosis Mimick pierre robbin anomaly


CRAO Carotid atherosclerosis is commonest cause of CRAO in elderly In young-Cardiac emboli. CAttle trucking appearance Mnemonic:CRAO=CAttle Treatment: Paracentesis by letting out Mannitol,acetazolamide Carbogen mixture-Inhaled CO2 ,causes systemic vasodilation. CRVO Ischaemic and NonIschaemic types Vision<6/60 RAPD Retinal hemorrhages Vision loss …

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