Category Archives: Physiology

GIT hormones,their actions and sites of action.

Cholecystokinin(CCK) Secreted from I cells Acts on GB and pancreas Increase enzyme secretion Increase contraction Gastro Intestinal Peptide(GIP) Secreted from K cells Acts on Pancreas Increase insulin Decrease fluid absorption Gherlin Secreted from stomach Increase food intake Increase GH secretion …

Read more »

Hormone secreting cells of anterior pituitary

Acidophil cells Somatotroph– Growth Hormone Lactotroph – Prolactin Basophil cells Corticotroph –  ACTH Thyrotroph – TSH Gonadotroph – FSH

Physiology of respiration, respiratory centres, effects of transection of brainstem.

Human respiration is controlled by two mechanisms. Voluntary control Automatic control Voluntary control of respiration is by Cerebral cortex.Voluntary control is needed for respiration at one’s will as in whistling,singing etc. Automatic control of respiration is via the Pontomedullary centers …

Read more »

Hormones and neurotransmitters affecting feeding and satiety.

Feeding and satiety centre in hypothalamus is modulated by several hormones and neurotransmitters. Since this one is a bit confusing it requires lots of revision. Orexigenic(Increase feeding) Neuropeptide Y. Agouti Related Protein (AGRP). Melanin Concentrating Hormone(MCH). Orexins A and B. …

Read more »

Kussmaul’s,Cheyne Stoke’s and Bitots breathing

Kussmaul’s breathing/Acidotic breathing Typically seen in metabolic acidosis Characterized by rapid and deep breathing due to stimulation by increased H+ concentration Causes Metabolic acidosis Diabetic keto acidosis Renal failure Cheyne stokes breathing Respiration shows alternate waxing and waning of tidal …

Read more »

Resting Membrane Potential

RMP is the potential difference between the inside of a cell and outside.RMP is maintained by K+ ion. RMP of neuron   -70mV RMP of smooth muscle -50mV RMP of cardiac muscle  -90mV RMP of skeletal muscle  -90mV Changes in Na+ …

Read more »

Renal Tubular acidosis

Type I RTA DCT- H+ secretion Low Urine pH cannot be reduced<5.5 even by NH4Cl Type II RTA PCT –  HCO3 reabsorption Low Fanconis syndrome-Swan neck PCT Type III RTA Autosomal recessive Carbonic Anhydrase defect Type IV RTA DCT- H+/K+ …

Read more »