Forensic medicine important points

Types of Hanging

Typical-Knot at the occiput

Atypical-Knot at any place other than occiput

Complete-Fully suspended in air

Partial-Feet touching the ground


Garroting- Ligature strangulation from behind

Mugging- By holding neck in the bend of elbow

Burking-Smothering+Traumatic asphyxia

Force required to obstuct trachea-15kg

Fresh water and salt water drowning

Fresh water drowning-Hemodilution,hyponatremia,Hyperkalemia

Salt water drowning-Pulmonary edema,hemoconcentration

Hydrocution- No specific postmortem finding

Water in sphenoidal air sinusĀ  is a very good sign in drowning.

Rule of Hasse

To find intrauterine age of fetus

Upto 5 months square root of length

After 5 months multiply by 5.

Ossification centres

Viability attained by 7 months/210 days

Ossification center in calcaneum-5 months

Ossification center in talus-7 months

Ossification center in cuboid-9 months

Strenum- 5 ossification centers(66779) if atleast 3 is present, fetus is viable.
Testamentary capacity-Ability to make a will

Caspers dictum

Rate of decomposition in soil water and air- 1:2:8

“According to an old rule of thumb (Casper’s dictum) one week of
putrefaction in air is equivalent to two weeks in water, which is equivalent to eight
weeks buried in soil, given the same environmental temperature”.

Criminal responsibility of insane

Durham’s rule

Currens rule

Mcnaughtens rule

First permanent tooth to erupt-First molar

Thanatology-Science of death

Sommer’s movement-Due to shortening and stiffening of muscles in rigor mortis.

Proximal 2 cm of anterior descending branch-Commonest site of MI

Rigor mortis is due to-reduction of ATP

Marbling-Branching pattern of veins after death-Can be seen by 36 hours

Clostridium welchii-Adipocere, foamy liver.

Evidence of recent sex in male-Lugol’s iodine test.

Chemical tests

Seminal stains-Florence,acid phosphatase test,Barberio test

Blood stains-Takayama test

Blood grp of old blood stain-Absorption elution technique

Christmas Y stain-Detects sperm in vaginal mucosa.

Nystens Law-Spread of rigor mortis-proximo distally.

Sex determination

  1. Ischiopubic index
  2. Sacral index
  3. Corporobasal index(Diameter of sacrum)
  4. Medullary index(Bone)

Race determination

  1. Brachial index(radius/humerus)
  2. Crural index(tibia/femur)
  3. Humerofemoral index
  4. Cephalic index

Age determination

  1. Costochondral junction
  2. Pubic symphisis
  3. Gustafson’s method

Medullary index of hair-Species determination

Fragmented medulla-negroid

Humans have narrow medulla-type 7.

Cephalic index




Bertillion system-Antopometry

Dalton system-Dactylography

  1. saikumar konuku

    rule of hasse after 5 months of pregnancy is length in cm divided by 5 ref dutta 5/e p-41

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