Hallmark findings of diseases

Sickle-cell anaemia
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Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation
  • Guillain-Barre   (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)
Antiplatelet Antibodies
  • idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Marfan’s
Aschoff Bodies
  • rheumatic fever
Auer Rods
  • acute promyelocytic leukemia  (AML type M3)
  • sickle cell anemia
  • UMN lesion
Basophilic Stippling of RBCs
  • lead poisoning
Bence Jones Protein
  • multiple myeloma   free light chains (either kappa or lambda)
  • Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia
Birbeck Granules
  • histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Blue Bloater
  • Chronic Bronchitis
Boot-Shaped Heart
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
Bouchard’s Nodes
  • osteoarthritis (PIP)
Boutonniere’s Deformity
  • rheumatoid arthritis
Brown Tumor
  • hyperparathyroidism
Brushfield Spots
  • Down’s
Call-Exner Bodies
  • granulosa cell tumor
Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy
  • Chagas’ Disease
  • 1 ° Syphilis
  • Haemophilus ducreyi
Charcot Triad
  • multiple sclerosis    (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech)
Charcot-Leyden Crystals
  • bronchial asthma
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing
  • cerebral lesion
Chocolate Cysts
  • endometriosis
Chvostek’s Sign
  • Hypocalcemia  facial spasm in tetany
Clue Cells
  • Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman’s Triangle
  • osteosarcoma
Cold Agglutinins
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    ·  infectious mononucleosis
Condyloma Lata
  • 2 ° Syphilis
Cotton Wool Spots
  • HTN
Councilman Bodies
  • dying hepatocytes
Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule
  • rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)
Currant-Jelly Sputum
  • ·  Klebsiella
Curschmann’s Spirals
  • bronchial asthma
Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra
  • Parkinson’s
Donovan Bodies
  • granuloma inguinale (STD)
  • osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)
Ectopia Lentis
  • Marfan’s
Erythema Chronicum Migrans
  • Lyme Disease
Fatty Liver
  • Alcoholism
Ferruginous Bodies
  • asbestosis
Ghon Focus / Complex
  • Tuberculosis (1 ° & 2 ° , respectively)
Gower’s Maneuver
  • Duchenne’s MD  use of arms to stand
Heberden’s Nodes
  • Osteoarthritis (DIP)
Heinz Bodies
  • G6PDH Deficiency
Hemorrhagic Urticaria
  • Henoch-Schonlein
Heterophil Antibodies
  • infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hirano Bodies
  • Alzheimer’s
Hypersegmented PMNs
  • Megaloblastic anemia
Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs
  • iron-deficiency anemia
Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction
  • · Syphilis  over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. that causes symptoms 2° to rapid lysis
Joint Mice
  • osteoarthritis   (fractured osteophytes)
Kaussmaul Breathing
  • acidosis
Keratin Pearls
  • SCCA
Keyser-Fleischer Ring
  • Wilson’s
Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules
  • diabetic nephropathy
  • HPV
Koplik Spots
  • measles
Lewy Bodies
  • Parkinson’s   (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells)
Lines of Zahn
  • arterial thrombus
Lisch Nodules
  • neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease)
Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli
  • poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
McBurney’s Sign
  • appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)
Michealis-Gutmann Bodies
  • Malakoplakia
Monoclonal Antibody Spike
  • multiple myeloma   this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA)
    ·  MGUS
  • hypothyroidism
Negri Bodies
  • rabies
Neuritic Plaques
  • Alzheimer’s
Neurofibrillary Tangles
  • Alzheimer’s
Non-pitting Edema
  • Myxedema
    ·  Anthrax Toxin
Notching of Ribs
  • Coarctation of Aorta
Nutmeg Liver
  • CHF
Painless Jaundice
  • pancreatic CA (head)
  • rheumatoid arthritis
Pautrier’s Microabscesses
  • mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Philadelphia Chromosome
  • CML
    ·  ALL
Pick Bodies
  • Pick’s Disease
Pink Puffer
  • Emphysema      Centroacinar – smoking    Panacinar – a1-antitrypsin deficiency
  • gout (MP joint of hallux)
Port-Wine Stain
  • Hemangioma
Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign
  • tearing of the ACL
Psammoma Bodies
  • Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid
    ·  Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
    ·  Meningioma
    ·  Mesothelioma
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Punched-Out Bone Lesions
  • multiple myeloma
Rash on Palms & Soles
  • 2° Syphilis
    ·  RMSF
Red Morning Urine
  • paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg Cells
  • Hodgkin’s Disease
Reid Index Increased
  • chronic bronchitis
Reinke Crystals
  • Leydig cell tumor
Rouleaux Formation
  • multiple myeloma  RBC’s stacked as poker chips
S3 Heart Sound
  • L to R Shunt (VSD, PDA)
    ·  Mitral Regurg
    ·  LV Failure
S4 Heart Sound
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
    ·  Pulmonary HTN
Schwartzman Reaction
  • ·  Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs
Simian Crease
  • Down’s
Smith Antigen
  • SLE  (also anti-dsDNA)
Soap Bubble on X-Ray
  • giant cell tumor of bone
Spike & Dome Glomeruli
  • membranous glomerulonephritis
String Sign on X-ray
  • Crohn’s  bowel wall thickening
Target Cells
  • Thalassemia
Tendinous Xanthomas
  • Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Thyroidization of Kidney
  • chronic pyelonephritis
  • gout
Tram-Track Glomeruli
  • membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Trousseau’s Sign
  • visceral ca, classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis)
    ·  hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)

These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs, but they unfortunately have the same name.

Virchow’s Node
  • supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells
  • Measles
WBC Casts
  • pyelonephritis
Wire Loop Glomeruli
  • lupus nephropathy, type IV
­ AFP in amniotic fluid or mother’s serum
  • Spina Bifida
    ·  Anencephaly
­ Uric Acid
  • Gout
    ·  Lesch Nyhan
    ·  Myeloproliferative Disorders
    ·  Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides)
  • COPD
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