Important points

  • Sclera is thickest at the posterior pole near the optic nerve
  • Sclera is thinnest just behind the insertion of superior rectus.
  • Internuclear opthalmoplegia(INO) is a disorder of conjugate lateral gaze characterized by impaired horizontal eye movement with weak adduction of ipsilateral eye and abduction nystagmus of contralateral eye.

Absolute indication for termination of pregnancy are-

  1. Primary pulmonary hypertension
  2. Eisenmenger syndrome
  3. Pulmonary veno occlusive disease
  • Trisomy 18 is associated with greatest chance of abortion among trisomies(74%)
  • Fishy odour and clue cells give clue of Bacterial vaginosis,doc is metronidazole.
  • Mayer Rokitansky kuster hauser syndrome consists of vaginal aplasia with other mullerian abnormalities.
  • Ovaries are unaffected in Mayer Rokitansky syndrome because they are developed from primitive ectoderm(genital ridge)
  • Chorionic villous biopsy can be carried out transcervically from 10-12 weeks and transabdominally from 10 weeks to term
  • Two important causes of hip pain in children are transient synovitis and septic arthritis, septic arthritis is due to infection whereas transient synovitis is due to immune reaction triggered by bacterial antigens.
  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Double bubble sign is characteristic of duodenal atresia, first bubble is due to dilated stomach and second bubble due to duodenum.
  • Double bubble sign can also be due to duodenal stenosis,duodenal webs,annular pancreas,malrotation of gut due to midline volvulus/ladd bands,preduodenal position of portal vein.
  • Peyronies disease is also called penile fibromatosis.

HS purpura is characterized by tetrad of

  1. purpura
  2. arthritis
  3. Glomerulonephritis
  4. Abdominal pain
  • Zona glomerulosa -minerallocorticoid
  • Zona fasciculata- Glucocorticoid
  • Zona reticularis-Sex corticoid.
  • Carolis disease is type V cholidochal cyst.
  • Clomiphene citrate is a weak estrogen agonist so it acts as estrogen antagonist in the presence of estrogen.
  • High frequency hearing loss is due to ototoxic medications,high frequency audiometry is used to isentify hearing loss due to ototoxic drugs.

Rhomberg test tests:

  1. Joint position sense(proprioception)
  2. Vision
  3. Vestibular apparatus

If any two of the above is working rhombergs test is negative.

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