Important points

Barr body is inactive X chromosome seen in Interphase.

Major constituent of surfactant is Di palmatoyl phosphatidyl choline

Thyroid hormone enhance activity of type II pneumatocytes

Insulin ihibits the activity of type II pneumatocytes

Glucocorticoids enhance maturation of surfactant

Surfactant deficiency may occur in

  1. Occlusion of main bronchus
  2. Occlusion of pulmonary artery
  3. Long term inhalation of 100% O2
  4. Cigarette smokers

Transport of CO2 occurs mainly in form of bicarbonate(70%)>carbamino compounds>dissolved CO2.

Exposure to high CO2 leads to cerebral and cutaneous vasodialtion and vasoconstriction elsewhere.

Increased negative intrathoracic pressure increase length of ventricular muscles.

Nitric oxide acts by stimulating  guanyl cyclase raising cGMP and stimulating protein kinase G.

NO and CO are neuromodulators.

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