Interesting doubles

It is always easier to learn by comparing two opposites. We can always find contrasting pairs which help us to memorize topics at ease.

I have compiled a list of interesting doubles just for the sake of memorizing complex topics, the list is being updated continuously.

1. Aortic dissection and aortic aneurism

Investigation of choice for Aortic dissection- MRI

IOC for Aortic aneurism- Angiography.

2.Parkinsonism and  Schizophrenia

Parkinsonism is due to dopamine deficiency

Schizophrenia is due to dopamine overactivity

Alzheimers is due to Alcetylcholine.

3.Hallucinations in Schizophrenia and Alcoholism

Schizophrenia -Auditory hallucination

Alcoholism-Visual hallucination

4. IL1 and IL2

IL1 – Secreted by macrophages

IL2- Secreted by T helper cells(CD4)

Function of IL1 is to stimulate IL2 production.

5.MAC and Km

MAC- Measure of potency of drug.Higher the MAC less potent the drug.

Km-Higher the Km less potent the drug is.

6.Potency and efficacy

Potency- Dose required for maximum effect

Efficacy-Maximum effect produced by a drug.

Efficacy more important than potency in clinical setting.

7.Labatelol and Lapatinib

Labetalol- Combined alpha and beta blocker

Lapatinib- Her1 and HER2 antagonist.

8.Physostigmine and Neostigmine

Physostigmine- Lipid soluble so crosses Blood Brain Barrier

Neostigmine- Lipid insoluble cannot cross BBB

9.Microglia and Astrocytes

Microglia- CNS macrophages

Astrocytes- Form Blood Brain Barrier

10.Osteocalcin and Osteopontin

Osteocalcin- Osteoblasti activity

Osteopontin- Epithelial tumour marker of ovary.

11.Night Terror and Nightmare

Night Terror- Not Recall NREM Sleep

Nightmare- Recall REM Sleep

12.Hypo and Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

Hypokalemic Periodic paralysis- Calcium channel defect

Hyperkalemic Periodic paralysis- Sodium Channel defect

13.Muscular dystrophy and Myotonic dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy -X linked recessive

Myotonic dystrophy- Autosomal dominant

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