Nematodes,Cestodes and trematodes

Nematodes

Round worms

  1. Enterobius Vermicularis-Pin worm
  2. Ascaris Lumbricoids-Giant round worm
  3. Trichinella spiralis
  4. Trichiuris trichiura
  5. Dracunculus mediensis
  6. Onchocerca volvulus
  7. Loa loa
  8. Wuchereria bancrofti
  9. Toxocara canis

Hook worms

  1. Strongyloides stercoralis
  2. Ancylostoma duodenale
  3. Necator americanus

Routes of infection

Ingested:Enterobius,Ascaris,Trichinella,Trichiuris

Cutaneous:Strongyloids,Ancylostoma,Necator(Hookworms)

Cestodes/Tapeworms

Tinea solium

Ingestion of larvae encysted in undercooked pork leads to intestiinal tapeworms.

Ingestion of eggs causes cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis

Mass lesions in brain have “Swiss cheese appearance”

DOC:Praziquantel for intestinal worms and cysticercosis, Albendazole for neurocysticercosis.

Echinococcus granulosus

Eggs in dog faeces on ingestion cause cysts in liver.

Causes anaphylaxis if antigens released from cysts

Also causes lung cysts.

DOC:Albendazole.

Trematodes/Flukes

Schistosoma

Schistosoma hematobium and schistosoma mansoni.

Snails are host

Cercariae penetrate skin of humans cause granuloma,fibrosis and inflammations of spleen and liver

Portal HTN-Schistosoma mansoni

Bladder cancer and hematuria-Schistosoma hematobium

DOC:Praziquantel

Clonorchis sinensis/Asian liver fluke

Undercooked fish

Causes inflammation of the biliary tract,pigmented gall stones

Associated with cholangiocarcinoma.

DOC:Praziquantel

Paragonimus westermani

Undercooked crab meat.

Causes infection and secondary bacterial infection of lung.

DOC:Praziquantel.

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