Achalasia Cardia

Failure of LES to relax. LES remains in a constant state of tone with periods of relaxation. Etiology Idiopathic Infectious Neurogenic degeneration Stress Trauma Chagas disease Pathophysiology Young women, middle aged men and women are affected. Primary pathology is destruction …

Read more »

HIRSCHSPRUNGS Disease

Definition Congenital develoental disorder characterised by the absence of ganglion cells in myenteric(Auerbach’s)plexus and aubmucosal Meissner’s plexus. Epidemiology Occurs in 1 in 5000 childbirths, more common in males and m:f ratio is 4:1. Etiology Family history of HIrschsprungs, 3-5 percent …

Read more »

Undescended testis

Definition Incomplete descent of testis occurs when testis is arrested in some part of its normal path to scrotum. Development and descent of testis Testis develops from genital ridge in 7th week of intrauterine life, in the retroperitoneum below the …

Read more »

Below Knee Amputation-Burgess Long posterior flap technique

The Burgess technique is the most frequently used technique in BK amputation.The well vascularized myocutaneous flap consists of gastrocnemius, partial soleus and posterior skin. Technique Incision Anterior skin incision should be located 12 cm (one handbreadth) below tibial tuberosity, skin …

Read more »

What is the point in learning medicine?

My question is to the medical graduates who study for a major part of their lives.What is the point in learning ?. After all our lifespan is limited and our learning period is too long. How can any medical student …

Read more »

Skin Grafting-Types of skin grafts

Split thickness skin grafts   Also known as thiersch graft,split-thickness grafts consist of epidermis and a variable thickness of dermis. Thinner grafts (<0.016 in.) have a higher rate of engraftment, whereas thicker grafts, with a greater amount of dermis, are …

Read more »

Sister Mary Joseph Nodule

Sister Mary Joseph Dempsey (born Julia Dempsey; 1856-1939) was the surgical assistant of William J. Mayo at St. Mary’s Hospital in Rochester, Minnesota,USA from 1890 to 1915. She drew Mayo’s attention to the phenomenon, and he published an article about …

Read more »