Types of renal calculi and their properties.

Calcium Oxalate Calculus

  1. Most common renal calculi
  2. Hard and small

Phosphate calculus

  1. Smooth, white and solitary.
  2. Triple phosphate calculus-Calcium Ammonium magnesium phosphate/struvite calculus.
  3. Staghorn calculus- When they fill all or most of renal pelvis.
  4. Seen in alkaline urine especially with proteus infection.

Uric acid and urate calculus.

  1. Radioluscent.
  2. Form in acidic urine
  3. Most responsive to lithotripsy.

Cystein calculi

  1. Uncommon,seen in cystinuria.
  2. Appear inacidic urine.
  3. Extremely hard, resistant to ESWL.

Xanthine calculi

  1. Radioluscent
  2. Secondary to congenital deficiency of xanthine oxidase.

Indinavir calculi

  1. Radioluscent.
  2. Due to Indinavir use in 6% patients who use it.

Silicate stones

  1. Rare
  2. Associated with long term use of antacids containing silica

Triamterene stones

  1. Radioluscent, rare.
  2. Associated with antihyypertensive medications containing triamterene.
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