Vasculitis

Infectious/Non infectious in origin

Noninfectious Vasculitis

The main immunologic mechanisms that initiate noninfectious vasculitis are (1) immune complex deposition, (2) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), and (3) anti-endothelial cell antibodies.

Large-Vessel Vasculitis (Aorta and Large Branches to Extremities, Head, and Neck)

Giant-cell (temporal) arteritis

Granulomatous inflammation; also frequently involves the temporal artery. Usually occurs in patients older than age 50 and is associated with polymyalgia rheumatica.

Takayasu arteritis

Granulomatous inflammation usually occurring in patients younger than age 50

Medium-Vessel Vasculitis (Main Visceral Arteries and Their Branches)

1.Polyarteritis nodosa

Necrotizing inflammation typically involving renal arteries but sparing pulmonary vessels

2.Kawasaki disease

Arteritis with mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome; usually occurs in children. Coronary arteries can be involved with aneurysm formation and/or thrombosis.

Small-Vessel Vasculitis (Arterioles, Venules, Capillaries, and Occasionally Small Arteries)

Wegener granulomatosis

Granulomatous inflammation involving the respiratory tract and necrotizing vasculitis affecting small vessels, including glomerulonephritis. Associated with c-ANCAs.

Churg-Strauss syndrome

Eosinophil-rich and granulomatous inflammation involving the respiratory tract and necrotizing vasculitis affecting small vessels. Associated with asthma and blood eosinophilia. Associated with p-ANCAs.

Microscopic polyangiitis

Necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis with few or no immune deposits; necrotizing arteritis of small and medium-sized arteries can occur. Necrotizing glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis are common. Associated with p-ANCAs.

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